Commercial dairy farming is a must because the demand of milk in our country is 12.52 million metric tons per year but the production is about 2.28 million metric tons per year and the deficit is 10.24 million metric tons yearly. About 50,000 small or big dairy farm are established to meet up this demand.
Dairy farming with hybrid cows are very profitable business now. So farmers need to learn about improved dairy or cattle management, proper breeding, balanced diet, preventing disease, primary care and modern farming methods to get better production.
Good Cow Features
A cow containing many good features is a must for successful dairy farming. The features of good cows are listed below.
- It’s head will be light and small sized.
- Forehead will wide.
- Bright eyes and very interested in food.
- Front side of the body will be light, back side will heavy and well structured.
- Attractive body structure and loose body formation.
- Bone formation of the chest must have to be well structured.
- Skin should be thin, no unnecessary fat under the skin, color of the skin and hair will shiny and smooth.
- Nipple will be large, well organized with body size.
- Four nipple will be equal in distance from one to another.
- Milk vein would thick and clear.
Farm management is one type of strategy through which farm resources, chances and time can be adjusted. Benefits of well farm management in dairy farming includes the followings.
- Parsimony of asset.
- Profit within a short time.
- More production within short period.
- Prevent the wastage of energy and labor.
- Profit in dairy farming production.
The characteristics of a cow inherited from its father or mother. The quality of cow can be high but it will not produce highly if they aren’t managed well. Keeping the cows and their house clean daily, comfortable shelter, regular food supply, proper breeding, disease prevention and management is the issue to improve dairy farming.
If you want to keep the cow at family or farm, better accommodation is needed. Adequate cattle housing or cowhouse is necessary for dairy farming to keep the cow free from predators and some adverse condition such as storms, rain, cold and heat, other natural hazard, misery, insects, wild bird and thief. According to our climate it would be better if the house become south faced. It will ensure sufficient flow of fresh air and light inside the house. The condition of the room should not wet in any circumstances. It will be better if the floor of the cowhouse are carpeting with brick. In order to keep free from odor, fly, mosquito,the floor needs to wash occasionally with germicide. The cowhouse may be of two types. Open or free house and fixed or common room.
Under this method, the cow can be observed by tiding a chain with iron. Cows feeding, water and taking milk can be done from same location.
Taking milk from cows is very easy in this system because the cow always tided up with chain. The animals are in safe place at adverse weather condition. Suitable for artificial reproduction. Cows can be raised in a fixed and small place.
The cost in this method is pretty high. Easy movement are not available in this system, so the cows can’t take any exercise as a result it suffers by different types of diseases. As the cows tied all over the day so the floor is always wet.
Fixed House Design
In this method the cows are always tied. For this reason it is very difficult to clean the cowhouse regularly. Common cowhouse are two types.
One Row Cowhouse
This cowhouses are made to keep a little amount of cow in a row. Partitions are made to keep the cow separate from each to other. The partition are 90 cm in length and 45 cm in height. Every cow needs 165 cm place for stand and 105 cm side space. The food pot for cow should 75 cm and the channel 30 cm. Increase or decrease the place of cowhouse in this system according to the number of cows. The ceiling should one aloft and a height of 300 cm.
Two Row Cowhouse
For farming many cows in a little space this types of houses are suitable. In this method the cows can keep in two ways, face to face and the exterior system. The cows stay in front of each other in face to face system. 120 cm space are there to feed the cow. 5.5 feet space for standing and 3.5 feet side space is required.
Feed and water can served in the same time. More light is available while milking the cows. Cows feel comfortable in its own place. Care taker can move easily inside the house.
A cow should serve feed according to the method mentioned here. Green grass 20-30 kg, 15-20% protein containing grainy feed mixture. Provide salt 50-60 g daily and clean water as much as needed. Always keep a fully filled pot of clean and fresh water in front of the cow.
Care & Management
Without proper care and management, it is not possible to keep the cows vigorous and healthy. As a result expected amount of milk and meat can not be gained. And the dairy farming will be a non profitable business.
Milk the cows twice a day. Once in dawn and another time in evening equally. Before milking, the nipple and hand of the person should cleaned properly with fresh water and antiseptic. Farmer can also use milking machine to collect milk.
To improve or develop the condition and production of cow it should meet reproduction with a proper plan. The selected bull of which mother, grandmother gives more milk, is best for artificial insemination process. So when the cow want to meet, it should meet with a high productive bull.
Keeping Farm Record
Determining profit and lose of farm depends on the well keeping list of income and expenditure. For proper management, plans and targets have to make first. It is a must to keep essential record like farm products, accounting, sales, births, deaths and the correct information for the artificial insemination program.
Open House Methods
In open space method 5-6 square meters space is required. 2.5-3 square meters for growing calf and 10-12 square meters for pregnant cow.
At last if you want to be success in dairy farming you have to take proper care of your cattle. They have to provide shelter, food, water and medicine according to their demands. Thus one farmer can be success in dairy farming.