Mongolian Cattle: Characteristics, Origin & Uses

The Mongolian cattle are a breed of domestic cattle native to Mongolia and Inner Mongolia. It has been herded for centuries by nomads and is highly valued for their quality meat.

The breed began to be improved with crossbreeding the European cattle breeds, and the Shorthorn was the first to be crossed.

Asian wild cattle were the ancestors of the todays modern Mongolian cattle. These animals are found in two varieties, the Halhïn Gol and the the Ujumqin.

They are one of the most popular among Chinese indigenous cattle breeds. The breed is mainly available in the Inner Mongolia, but also widely distributed in the northeast, north and northwest.

Nearly 40,000 animals were died in 2008 due to harsh winter conditions. Read more info about the breed below.

Mongolian Cattle Characteristics

The Mongolian cattle are small to medium sized animals. They are usually brindle or reddish brown in coloration, but will sometimes be black, yellow or pied. They are found in two varieties, the Halhïn Gol and the the Ujumqin.

They have thick hair and skin. Both bulls and cows have quite thin and long horns. They have small humps and dewlaps. They have very strong and sturdy bone structure.

Their body is of stocky type with low, narrow hindquarters and the cows have good udder conformation. The Mongolian cattle are relatively smaller in size as compared to other cattle breeds and they stand approximately 100 cm tall.

Average live body weight of the mature cows is between 280 and 400 kg. And average body weight of the mature bulls vary from 550 to 600 kg. Info from


The Mongolian cattle are mainly a meat cattle breed. They are noted for their quality meat production. The animals are also pretty good for using as a draught animal.

Special Notes

Mongolian cattle are very hardy and they can withstand almost all climates and terrains. They are usually of docile behavior and relatively quiet and friendly in temperament.

They grow relatively slower and it can take up to 7-8 years for reaching their full size. But high quality food supplements can increase their growth. The cows are average milk producers.

And their milk production is influenced by natural conditions and nutritional level. On average the cows can produce about 500-600 kg of milk per lactation. Their milk contain about 5 percent of fat. Review full breed profile of the Mongolian cattle in the following chart.

Mongolian Cattle | Breed Profile

Breed Name Mongolian
Other Name None
Breed Purpose Mainly meat and also draught
Special Notes Strong, hardy, well adapted to harsh climates
Breed Size Small
Weight Bulls 550 to 600 kg
Cows 280 to 400 kg
Climate Tolerance All Climates
Coat Color Usually brindle or reddish brown
Horned Yes
Milk Yield Average
Rarity Common
Country/Place of Origin China

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